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CLIMATE CHANGE

1)      Sheldon Whitehouse, continuously lecturing the Senate on climate change, wants to jail those who disagree with him. (A) Supposedly 97% of scientists agree with his climate views. 97%? A quick online survey generating 3,146 responses, 5% from people identifying themselves as climate scientists. A historian searches a database for “global climate change”, reads only the abstracts of 928 articles, and decides who agrees with her. Etc. There are perhaps fewer than 100 true experts on the topic. 97% is pure fantasy. (F, pages 109 – 111; H, pages 7 – 30; I, pages 191 - 192)

2)      The UN’s IPCC says there’s 95% certainty their CO2 scare models are right? No, their models can produce similar results 95% of the time, as if I recommend a stock based upon my models showing it rising 95% of the time. (I, pages 81 – 83) And models aren’t real science or economics. Garbage in, garbage out: If you design your computer models to produce a specific result, expect to get that result. The IPCC wasn’t tasked with finding the truth about climate change, but to emphasize the human effect upon it. (H, page 40)

3)      Standard geology: The climate always changes. We are currently in a short (thousands of years) warm period of the Ice Age, in between long, cold periods, in an era of millions of years of dozens of alternating warm and cold periods. (E, chart, page 31; I, charts, pages 35, 44, 53 etc.) Being warm not more than 20% of the time (B, pages 4, 126; G, pages 80, 208), the other 80% has been bitterly cold, with Greenland-style ice sheets covering much of North America and Eurasia. (E) New York City was under thick ice. (B, page 108)

4)      Geologists have long known of the advance and retreat of ice sheets, based upon the resultant geology (E), but dating the events by geological techniques is difficult and imprecise. (D, pages 42 – 43 etc.; E, page 431) During the last few decades, ice cores have been extracted from Greenland and Antarctica. Newly fallen snow becomes ice, the air trapped in the snow getting analyzed to determine the climate conditions at the time of ice formation. (B) Counting the layers of ice in an ice core is like counting tree rings, so the layers can be dated. Recent advances in science have refined this data.

5)      It’s long been known that a warming earth boils CO2 out of sea water and into the atmosphere. (B, page 105; I, page 140; J, graph, page 286) The initial analysis of ice cores suggested that CO2 percentages and temperatures rose simultaneously, hailed as proof that CO2 causes global warming. Enhancements in science fine-tuned the dating to show that global warming occurred, on average, 800 years BEFORE CO2 increases. (E, page 465; H, page 80; I, pages 135 – 137; L, page 150) An inconvenient truth.

6)      Most of the heat wavelengths that could be absorbed by CO2 already get absorbed by water vapor, a much stronger greenhouse gas. (I, pages 142 – 143; L, graph, page 59) Climate models show that the slight extra warmth from more CO2 forces water vapor to increase, producing most of the models’ warming. (I, page 145 etc.; J, page 141) But more water vapor also increases cloudiness, cooling down the earth. (L, page 198) Having not yet figured out cloud formation, clouds get understated in climate models. So the predictions are always too hot, and the IPCC constantly decreases its temperature forecasts.

7)      The sun’s total radiance varies only slightly, this reflected in climate models. But the sun’s wildly fluctuating magnetic fields (L, page 269) get omitted from climate models. These have been shown to strongly affect cloud formation, cooling the earth. CERN, among others, has been validating Henrik Svensmark’s theory that cosmic particles aggressively nucleate water vapor to form clouds. The sun’s magnetic fields, when strong, block much of this cosmic radiation, limiting the number of muons available to form clouds. (I, pages 128 – 129, 204; K; L, pages 41 – 42 etc.) For what the CO2 crowd knows of this, they may as well be blaming climate change on the Greek god Zeus. The sun. Who would have thunk? First figure out the sun’s climate, then the earth’s.

8)      Current global warming started around 1850 with the end of the Little Ice Age. (E, page 367) This cool era saw massive crop failures. The earth has seen many similar periods of warmth and coolness. (I, page 35; L, page 35, graph, page 149). There was a warm Bronze Age, a Roman Warm Period, a Medieval Warm Period and a Dark Ages Cold Period. (H, pages 76 – 78) The Holocene Climate Optimum, a few thousand years earlier, was several degrees warmer than today. (I, page 56; J, page 40)

9)      Today’s CO2 level is comparatively low, a tenth of what it was during the age of the dinosaurs. (I, page 24) In fact, CO2 is the raw material that plants use to produce oxygen in the air. Remember photosynthesis? (I, page 20) Increasing CO2 produces the same effect as fertilizing plants. (F, pages 114 – 116; I, page 22) The CO2 crowd wants to suck the very green out of the environment.

10)   The CO2 cycle is mostly lime, CaCO3, extremely common. Sea shells compress into chalk, limestone, marble and calcite. Lime easily dissolves in weak acids, very water soluble (sink holes?). Atmospheric CO2 is completely dwarfed by CO2 in sea water and limestone. (B, page 105; I, table, page 26) Methane, another hyped greenhouse gas, disintegrates into CO2 in less than a decade. (L, page 179)

11)   Whether the earth is currently getting warmer or not is a matter of who you wish to believe. There are 5 major world temperature datasets. (I, pages 113 – 116) The fanatics and the deniers each have their favorite, and fudge and un-fudge the data as they see fit. As a comparison with current temperature trends, the world was recovering its warmth when, 12,900 years ago (the Great Pyramid was built 5,500 years ago), northern hemisphere temperatures dropped 18 degrees F WITHIN A DECADE, marking the beginning of the Younger Dryas period. (B, chart, page 9; I, page 50) Such temperature swings have been common. (B, page 4)

12)    The world turned warmer 1,200 years later (E, page 360), causing sea levels to rise hundreds of feet from melting ice sheets. (I, pages 150 - 151) Within the last few thousand years, sea levels have risen and fallen with the melting and re-freezing of glaciers (E, page 107; L, pages 220 - 221), and have been higher than today. There currently isn’t much glacial ice to melt.

13)   Antarctica holds 90% of the world’s ice. (C, page 7; I, page 154) Most ice sheet melting is caused by warm ocean currents, which don’t reach there. Ice melting from land increases the sea level, while Arctic ice melt has virtually no effect on it, the ice already floating in water. (I, page 149) (But the decreased whiteness from melting ice into water does cause less of the sun’s heat to be reflected back into space.) Most other ice is on the Greenland ice sheet which, being near the warm Gulf Stream of the North Atlantic, makes it vulnerable to melting. Currently sea levels are rising a few millimeters a year. (E, graphs, page 462; H, page 90; I, graphs, page 151 – 153; L, page 220)

14)   The calving off of icebergs from ice sheets is just nature coping with gravity. When gravity can’t push things downward, it pushes them sideways, per simple trigonometry (C, page 47), making the world round. The calving of icebergs is dependent mostly upon the rate of snowfall, and the melting at the edge of the base of the ice sheet, with water lubricating ice sheet flow.

15)   The earth’s elevation gradually adjusts itself locally to the advancing and retreating ice sheets. (E, page 251) Surface rock is around 3 times heavier than ice and water. The melting of ice reduces weight on the earth, causing the earth to push upwards by around a third of the thickness of the former ice. The added weight of melted ice/water in the oceans causes the ocean floors to sink by a third of the thickness of the added water. The combined rising of land and sinking of ocean floor means that, as the earth adjusts itself, the sea level rises by a third of the thickness of the melted ice.

16)   The Gulf Stream distributes equatorial heat to the North Atlantic, with heat and salt water forcing ocean currents to flow. (E, pages 429 - 430) The CO2 crowd says that global warming may release too much fresh water from melting ice, disrupting the process, causing a renewal of the cold times. But this type of hot/cold cycle is from ice dams of glacial lakes suddenly bursting, releasing a sea full of fresh water into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline cycle for a thousand years at a time (E, pages 100, 362), not from a gradual process.

17)   The oceans are alkaline, not acidic. Extra CO2 temporarily makes them less alkaline, with the omnipresent lime gradually neutralizing this. (I, pages 181 – 182)

CITATIONS

A)     https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/03/sheldon-whitehouse-climate-fraud_n_7504710.html (If this doesn’t directly link, use it as a search.)

B)      Alley, R.B. 2000. The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

C)      Bennett, M. and Glasser, N. 2009. Glacial Geology: Ice Sheets and Landforms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

D)     Dawson, A. 1992. Ice Age Earth: Late Quaternary Geology and Climate. London, UK: Routledge.

E)      Ehlers, J., Hughes, P. and Gibbard, P. 2016. The Ice Age. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

F)      Epstein, A. 2014. The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels. New York, NY: Penguin Group (USA) LLC.

G)     Fagan, B., editor 2009. The Complete Ice Age: How Climate Change Shaped the World. London, UK: Thames & Hudson Ltd.

H)     Idso, C.D., Carter, R.M. and Singer, S.F. 2016. Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming: The NIPCC Report on Scientific Consensus. Arlington Heights, IL: The Heartland Institute.

I)        Robinson, G. and Robinson, G. 2012. Global Warming: Alarmists, Skeptic and Deniers, A Geoscientist Looks at the Science of Climate Change. Abbeville, SC: Moonshine Cove Publishing, LLC.  

J)       Saltzman, B. 2002. Dynamical Paleoclimatology: Generalized Theory of Global Climate Change. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

K)      Svensmark, H. and Calder, N. 2007. The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Icon Books Ltd.

L)       Vahrenholt, F. and Luning, S. 2015. The Neglected Sun: Why the Sun Precludes Climate Catastrophe. Arlington Heights, IL: The Heartland Institute.

 

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